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Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. In the top-ranking countries, limited access to resources did not necessarily predict low performance. In Shanghai and Singapore, the proportion of resilient students is about 70 percent. In the United States, it is below 30 percent. Since the fall of the Taliban in Afghanistan, there has been a spike in demand for education. More than 6. Both of these figures are the largest in Afghan history—far exceeding the time before the Taliban was in power.
At the same time, there is currently a severe shortage of teachers in Afghanistan, and the educators in the system are often undertrained and frequently do not get paid on time. Currently, they are optimistic and enthusiastic about educational opportunities and approach teaching with a positive attitude, but there is fear that this optimism will not last.
With these challenges, there is a push to improve the quality of education in Afghanistan as quickly as possible. Educational leaders are looking to other post-conflict countries for guidance, hoping to learn from other nations that have faced similar circumstances. Their input suggests that the keys to rebuilding education are an early focus on quality and a commitment to educational access.
Currently, educational quality in Afghanistan is generally considered poor, as is educational access. Literacy and math skills are low, as are skills in critical thinking and problem solving. Education of females poses additional challenges since cultural norms decree that female students should be taught by female teachers. Currently, there is a lack of female teachers to meet that gender-based demand.
In some provinces, the female student population falls below 15 percent of students World Bank The World Bank, which strives to help developing countries break free of poverty and become self-sustaining has been hard at work to assist the people of Afghanistan in improving educational quality and access. The Education Quality Improvement Program provides training for teachers and grants to communities. The program is active in all 34 provinces of Afghanistan, supporting grants for both quality enhancement and development of infrastructure as well as providing a teacher education program.
Another program called Strengthening Higher Education focuses on six universities in Afghanistan and four regional colleges. The emphasis of this program is on fostering relationships with universities in other countries, including the United States and India, to focus on fields including engineering, natural sciences, and English as a second language. The program also seeks to improve libraries and laboratories through grants.
These efforts by the World Bank illustrate the ways global attention and support can benefit an educational system. In developing countries like Afghanistan, partnerships with countries that have established successful educational programs play a key role in efforts to rebuild their future. As already mentioned, education is not solely concerned with the basic academic concepts that a student learns in the classroom.
Societies also educate their children, outside of the school system, in matters of everyday practical living. These two types of learning are referred to as formal education and informal education. Formal education describes the learning of academic facts and concepts through a formal curriculum.
Arising from the tutelage of ancient Greek thinkers, centuries of scholars have examined topics through formalized methods of learning. The rise of capitalism and its accompanying social changes made education more important to the economy and therefore more accessible to the general population. The idea of universal mass education is therefore a relatively recent idea, one that is still not achieved in many parts of the world. The modern Canadian educational system is the result of this progressive expansion of education. Today, basic education is considered a right and responsibility for all citizens.
Expectations of this system focus on formal education, with curricula and testing designed to ensure that students learn the facts and concepts that society believes are basic knowledge. In contrast, informal education describes learning about cultural values, norms, and expected behaviours by participating in a society. This type of learning occurs both through the formal education system and at home. Our earliest learning experiences generally happen via parents, relatives, and others in our community.
Through informal education, we learn how to dress for different occasions, how to perform regular life routines like shopping for and preparing food, and how to keep our bodies clean. Cultural transmission refers to the way people come to learn the values, beliefs, and social norms of their culture. Both informal and formal education include cultural transmission. For example, a student will learn about cultural aspects of modern history in a Canadian history classroom. In that same classroom, the student might learn the cultural norm for asking a classmate out on a date through passing notes and whispered conversations.
Another global concern in education is universal access. The modern idea of universal access arose in Canada as a concern for people with disabilities. In Canada, one way in which universal education is supported is through provincial governments covering the cost of free public education. Of course, the way this plays out in terms of school budgets and taxes makes this an often-contested topic on the national, provincial, and community levels.
Many provincial jurisdictions implemented educational policy to integrate special needs students into the classroom with mainstream students. Today, the optimal way to include differently able students in standard classrooms is still being researched and debated. There continues to be social debate surrounding how to implement the ideal of universal access to education. Functionalists believe that education equips people to perform different functional roles in society.
Critical sociologists view education as a means of widening the gap in social inequality. Feminist theorists point to evidence that sexism in education continues to prevent women from achieving a full measure of social equality. Symbolic interactionists study the dynamics of the classroom, the interactions between students and teachers, and how those affect everyday life. In this section, you will learn about each of these perspectives.
Functionalists view education as one of the more important social institutions in a society. They contend that education contributes two kinds of functions: manifest or primary functions, which are the intended and visible functions of education; and latent or secondary functions, which are the hidden and unintended functions. There are several major manifest functions associated with education. The first is socialization.
Beginning in preschool and kindergarten, students are taught to practise various societal roles. This socialization also involves learning the rules and norms of the society as a whole. In the early days of compulsory education, students learned the dominant culture. Today, since the culture of Canada is increasingly diverse, students may learn a variety of cultural norms, not only that of the dominant culture. School systems in Canada also transmit the core values of the nation through manifest functions like social control.
One of the roles of schools is to teach students conformity to law and respect for authority. Obviously, such respect, given to teachers and administrators, will help a student navigate the school environment. This function also prepares students to enter the workplace and the world at large, where they will continue to be subject to people who have authority over them. Fulfillment of this function rests primarily with classroom teachers and instructors who are with students all day. Education also provides one of the major methods used by people for upward social mobility. This function is referred to as social placement.
University and graduate schools are viewed as vehicles for moving students closer to the careers that will give them the financial freedom and security they seek. As a result, university students are often more motivated to study areas that they believe will be advantageous on the social ladder. A student might value business courses over a class in Victorian poetry because he or she sees business class as a stronger vehicle for financial success.
Education also fulfills latent functions. Much goes on in school that has little to do with formal education. For example, you might notice an attractive fellow student when he gives a particularly interesting answer in class—catching up with him and making a date speaks to the latent function of courtship fulfilled by exposure to a peer group in the educational setting. The educational setting introduces students to social networks that might last for years and can help people find jobs after their schooling is complete.
Of course, with social media such as Facebook and LinkedIn, these networks are easier than ever to maintain. Another latent function is the ability to work with others in small groups, a skill that is transferable to a workplace and that might not be learned in a homeschool setting. The educational system, especially as experienced on university campuses, has traditionally provided a place for students to learn about various social issues.
There is ample opportunity for social and political advocacy, as well as the ability to develop tolerance to the many views represented on campus. In , the Occupy Wall Street movement swept across university campuses all over Canada, leading to demonstrations in which diverse groups of students were unified with the purpose of changing the political climate of the country.
Table Manifest and Latent Functions of Education. According to functionalist theory, education contributes to both manifest and latent functions. Functionalists recognize other ways that schools educate and enculturate students. One of the most important values students in Canada learn is that of individualism—the valuing of the individual over the value of groups or society as a whole. One of the roles of schools in Canada is fostering self-esteem; conversely, schools in Japan focus on fostering social esteem—the honouring of the group over the individual.
In Canada, schools also fill the role of preparing students for competition and cooperation in life. Obviously, athletics foster both a cooperative and competitive nature, but even in the classroom, students learn both how to work together and how to compete against one another academically. Schools also fill the role of teaching patriotism. Although Canadian students do not have to recite a pledge of allegiance each morning, like students in the United States, they do take social studies classes where they learn about common Canadian history and identity.
Another role of schools, according to functionalist theory, is that of sorting , or classifying students based on academic merit or potential. The most capable students are identified early in schools through testing and classroom achievements. Exceptional students are often placed in accelerated programs in anticipation of successful university attendance.
Other students are guided into vocational training programs with emphasis on shop and home economics. Functionalists also contend that school, particularly in recent years, is taking over some of the functions that were traditionally undertaken by family. Society relies on schools to teach about human sexuality as well as basic skills such as budgeting and job applications—topics that at one time were addressed by the family.
Critical sociologists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality.
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Rather, they believe that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social inequalities arising from differences in class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Where functionalists see education as serving a beneficial role, critical sociologists view it more critically. To them, it is important to examine how educational systems preserve the status quo and guide people of lower status into subordinate positions in society. Students of low socioeconomic status are generally not afforded the same opportunities as students of higher status, no matter how great their academic ability or desire to learn.chalsonandsons.com/components
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For example, 25 of every low-income Canadian year-olds attend university compared to 46 of every high-income Canadian year-olds Berger, Motte, and Parkin Barriers like the cost of higher education, but also more subtle cultural cues, undermine the promise of education as a means of providing equality of opportunity. Picture a student from a working-class home who wants to do well in school.
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Monday evening, he has to babysit his younger sister while his divorced mother works. Tuesday and Wednesday he works stocking shelves after school until p. By Thursday, the only day he might have available to work on that assignment, he is so exhausted he cannot bring himself to start the paper. Since English is her second language, she has difficulty with some of his educational materials. They also lack a computer and printer at home, which most of his classmates have, so they have to rely on the public library or school system for access to technology. As this story shows, many students from working-class families have to contend with helping out at home, contributing financially to the family, having poor study environments, and lacking material support from their families.
This is a difficult match with education systems that adhere to a traditional curriculum that is more easily understood and completed by students of higher social classes. Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu.
He researched how, parallel to economic capital as analyzed by Marx , cultural capital , or the accumulation of cultural knowledge that helps one navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes.
Bourdieu emphasized that like economic capital, cultural capital in the form of cultural taste, knowledge, patterns of speech, clothing, proper etiquette, etc. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class.
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For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the IQ test and aptitude tests truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence. The cycle of rewarding those who possess cultural capital is found in formal educational curricula as well as in the hidden curriculum , which refers to the type of nonacademic knowledge that one learns through informal learning and cultural transmission.
The hidden curriculum is never formally taught but it is implied in the expectation that those who accept the formal curriculum, institutional routines, and grading methods will be successful in school. This hidden curriculum reinforces the positions of those with higher cultural capital, and serves to bestow status unequally. While educators may believe that students do better in tracked classes because they are with students of similar ability and may have access to more individual attention from teachers, critical sociologists feel that tracking leads to self-fulfilling prophecies in which students live up or down to teacher and societal expectations Education Week As noted above, IQ tests have been attacked for being biased—for testing cultural knowledge rather than actual intelligence.
For example, a test item may ask students what instruments belong in an orchestra. To correctly answer this question requires certain cultural knowledge—knowledge most often held by more affluent people who typically have more exposure to orchestral music. On the basis of IQ and aptitude testing, students are frequently sorted into categories that place them in enriched program tracks, average program tracks, and special needs or remedial program tracks. Though experts in testing claim that bias has been eliminated from tests, conflict theorists maintain that this is impossible.
The tests are another way in which education does not provide equal opportunities, but instead maintains an established configuration of power. Feminist theory aims to understand the mechanisms and roots of gender inequality in education, as well as their societal repercussions.
Like many other institutions of society, educational systems are characterized by unequal treatment and opportunity for women. Women now make up 56 percent of all post-secondary students and 58 percent of graduates from post-secondary institutions in Canada Statistics Canada Canadian women in fact have the highest percentage of higher educational attainment among all OECD countries at 55 percent. A university education is also more financially advantageous for women in Canada than men relatively speaking.
Women with a higher education degree earn on average 50 percent more than they would without higher education compared to 39 percent more for men.
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