New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty

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Perhaps the key thing to remember about writing research reports is that whatever our chosen genre, it is always going to be adrift from the actual experience about which we write. We are always re-presenting experiences through text or other media. Researchers strive to tell a story from evidence whereas creative writers have a licence to play, distort and ignore evidence. Am I researching with or on people?

What is my emotional investment in this question? Standpoint feminism Harding, took up the baton for women in making the claim that women-centred research would invite gender-sensitive ways of exploring, gathering and analysing data. Basically, these perspectives suggest that a special pair of glasses comes with an oppressed position. This is not an absurd proposition because those with an investment in privilege may well repress understandings of its effects on others; and those with an investment in losing their exploited status may well see more clearly sources of exploitation.

Both cases offer researchers some helpful pointers about this issue, but my focus is on the ways in which I think each writer risks unduly clamping people into social boxes, assigning to them an unproblematized privileged standpoint and voice. Having elaborated at some length on her own background, Hurst proposes that she was particularly well placed to interview working-class students because she could build rapport on the basis of common experiences.

This shared terrain is thought to increase respondent trust and disclosure. As a working class academic myself, I was predisposed to believe that I knew what it was like to be a working class college student. I had to be very careful when crafting my questions and soliciting my interviewees not to let these preconceptions initiate the study. To summarize, Hurst argues that her working classness facilitated trust and functioned to allay any suspicions that she would misrepresent her respondents. Her felt positional advantage or insider status encouraged authentic disclosures, untroubled by otherizing questions or readings of responses from non-working-class researchers.

First, Milner offers the following position statement: I do not believe that researchers must come from the racial or cultural community under study to conduct research in, with, and about that community. It seems that researchers instead should be actively engaged, thoughtful and forthright regarding tensions that can surface when conducting research where issues of race and culture are concerned.

Milner, Milner is clearly saying here that engagement with issues of race and culture is what matters. Being white always produces an inherited privilege that will drive oppressive behaviour towards black people, even when the declared behaviour is anti-racist. Positioning positionality 13 To summarize this second case, Milner has argued that racialized identities, conscious or not, will always determine the interview encounter; that knowledge comes from the narratives of the victims of racism, and that white people only act with black people when it is in their interests to do so.

So it is with some theories of oppression. It is important to clarify here that both Milner and Hurst are likely to protest that they do grey their categories through the concepts of intersectionality and multiple identities. My suggestion is that even with these qualifying concepts the rhetorical drive of these theories of positionality returns them to anchorage in a master status. There is a tension between declaring complexity in the making of humans and in privileging one particular aspect of that complexity as stable and overarching. Malesevic urges a radical rethink of how we approach issues of discrimination through the concept of identity.

Malesevic lived through the shocking episodes of ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia, and is thus understandably anxious about identity politics. Identity, argues Malesevic, is a mathematical concept which has been thoughtlessly transferred to social science. While grouping units with common properties and differentiating them from other units might work for numbers, it clearly cannot work for humanity, not least because you always risk repressing the paradoxical relationship between humans.

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First, this resistance means that racisms that cannot be explained through a white— black opposition are not read as undermining this binary. In the case of anti-semitism, Gilroy has argued that if we analytically split this from anti-black racism, we impoverish our understandings of the workings of racism. This point stretches to racisms against Irish, Roma, Armenians, Bosnian Muslims, Rwandans, Poles, Rumanians and so forth — none of which yield to a black—white binary.

A further relevant complexity is presented by the growing numbers of people who are of mixed inheritance. Second, for critical race theory a concern for variation in value positions anti-colonial and so on is subordinated to an assumption that skin colour always trumps ethics. The moral energy of critical race theory is fuelled by the claim that white supremacy determines human 14 Stances behaviour. A person is either a victim of white supremacy or a carrier of its privileges.

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Third, what we bring to the research table is context-sensitive, mobile and interactionally determined. Research encounters vary enormously, and social positionality is one element among many that shape them. Quite banal factors such as the time of the day and the heating can be as facilitative or inhibitive of disclosure as are the biographies in the room. Nor do I want to charge Hurst with this error, but we have to take care that we are not going for the easy win of an Orphan Annie status. We also have to guard against writing a research report that is more about us than the research we have conducted.

Finally, we have to ensure that we do not repress a complexity of factors that go into our making. We are both a social category and not. We are both determined and determining. Thinking about your positionality through your social category as a starting point is no bad thing. Indeed, a prime purpose of sociology is to draw out the ways in which this operates in unequal and unfair ways. Gorz, The point Gorz is making is that we are all caught up in structures that are determining but we have some measure of freedom, however small, to respond to them.

In short, human beings have agency, and are often disinclined to see themselves exclusively through a vulgar sociological lens. We must not forget that identities are also an outcome of negotiation and moral orientation Dhanda, Researchers have to consider whether they are inviting accounts that are overdetermined by a single identity position. The epistemological slant offered by Hurst and Milner risks such an invitation because they locate the production of knowledge in identity-based narratives. Collecting such narratives can be extremely important, but they will not give us unmediated access to experiences or knowledge.

It is important to remember that no one has easy, stable access to the naming of their reality. Positioning positionality 15 A strong thread in both the cases presented, then, is that if you have experienced a problem, you can speak with greater authority on it.

New Approaches to Qualitative Research Wisdom and Uncertainty by Maggi Savin-Baden Information

These experiences, including textual experiences books, lectures, lessons, conversation, etc. Rosen, 30 So we are what we have read and seen, touched etcetera , and this means that at least vicarious experience is available to us all. We might not have experienced racism personally, but as Milner writes, we can immerse ourselves in the scholarship to expand what we are alert to in our own assumptions and those of others. If we are the research tool, we need to be intellectually sharp and emotionally open. We also enter the research terrain with theoretical perspectives and ideas about what to look for on the basis of our textual experience.

If that experience is limited, we will limit both the questions we ask and the responses we hear. It is particularly argued in Hurst that if the researcher has a shared biography with the researched, this will facilitate trust and disclosure. This narrative is often organized around a commonly felt wound. Sometimes the people being researched sense from the questions asked that the researcher wants wound-based narratives, and obligingly deliver these. Unwittingly, then, we might ask respondents to limit self-analysis to what is socially bequeathed to them.

In making this point, I am not suggesting that subjects are never victims, but simply that few of us are only victims. Our sense of injustice about our treatment can incline us to see only that injustice as the key formative experience in our lives. Generally speaking, we have to be careful not to invert the problem we are addressing. Thus racists racialize particular groups of people into a unitary otherized category, and the temptation, to which I think critical racism falls, is to respond with an act of reversal in its commitment to an overarching black—white opposition.

This is a humanist position which has lost voice under the noise of sociologies of difference and identity. Critiques of humanism draw attention to the partial nature of enlightenment humanism; it is charged with representing white, middle-class European man as humanity, arrogantly translating the rights of men into universal ones.

This critique of enlightenment humanism is not groundless, although it needs to be acknowledged that others women, the enslaved, working class and so on seized upon its universal logic to extend its reach. We also need to acknowledge that humanism is more than a European enlightenment idea. Humanist values are traceable to all corners of the world and to many historical moments. This should not be surprising. It is absurd to imagine that only Europeans have spotted that as humans we all have shared predicaments, nor should it surprise us that various forms of humanism have failed the challenge to be inclusive.

Humanism is best understood as a working concept. I am not here arguing against a regard for what makes us different, but I am suggesting that we include in our view of human complexity a regard for what we share or can potentially share. My argument joins with the growing literature that is revising cosmopolitan approaches to this question see Fine, for an introduction. Dhanda argues that this is how we acknowledge the other as a person who is shaped by context, by moral formation and by resources however small for self-reinvention. It seems to me that anyone can research anyone or anything on the basis of this acknowledgement.

I have questioned whether the concepts of intersectionality and multiple identities adequately address how sociologies of identity cleave towards an original master status. I have also questioned a stark view of alterity in which the other is always other. References Aull Davies, C. Bentz, V. Dhanda, M. Dortins, E. Eisner, E. Fine, R. Foley, D. Shacklock and J. Foss, S. Friedan, B. Gilroy, P. Gorz, A.

Harding, S. Whose Knowledge? Holstein, J. Silverman ed.

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Hurst, A. Ladson-Billings, G. Law, J. Macbeth, D. Malesevic, S. Milner, R. Mullings, B. Nietzsche, F. Potter, J. Rolfe, G. Rose, G. Rosen, H. Stoke on Trent: Trentham. Shank, G. Srivastava, P. Bioethics has become a subdiscipline in its own right, and most academic papers about research ethics are written from a bioscience perspective. The principles of bioscience now serve, in effect, as a universalized code for researchers in all other disciplines. This has a number of deleterious effects which may be understood in terms of regulation, principles, practice and language.

There is a resulting need to counter the dominance of bioethical principles by developing an alternative way of thinking and writing about research ethics, better suited to the values and aspirations of qualitative researchers. The second part of the chapter will outline an alternative way of conceptualizing research ethics through virtue theory, and demonstrate how qualitative researchers can give voice to an authentic and character-led means of analysing ethical dilemmas in their practice.

In exploring the ethics of qualitative research this chapter will complement Chapter 6 by Duncan and Watson. Similar governance requirements are emerging in many other national contexts, including South Africa and Japan. In a UK context, although research ethics committees RECs date back to the mids, their contemporary growth resulted from government guidance issued in that all clinical research projects should have ethical approval at a local level. Qualitative research is often framed as an inductive exploration of a problem or issue rather than a deductive testing of a hypothesis, as in much quantitative research.

While a quantitative researcher can provide details about a questionnaire or a series of experiments that will be undertaken, a qualitative researcher may only be able to write in more general terms about their intention, for example, to conduct participant observation or interviews where the course of the conversation can never be entirely predetermined. Qualitative research can appear to be more risky, as the research design parameters in dealing with human participants tend to be less predictable.

Quantitative researchers tend to operate on the basis of principalism despite the philosophical contradictions between many of these principles. In practice, though, principles collide. The problem of obtaining consent is similarly problematic for qualitative researchers seeking to understand people with severe intellectual disabilities, including those with little or no spoken language Hubert and Hollins, The giving of consent by proxy might appear a practical solution to these problems, but how much real authority should be vested in relatives or parents who may have had little recent contact with a disabled or elderly family member?

The notion that participants are vulnerable is a patronising assumption not made in other areas of professional life. It is now common to ask participants in any kind of social research to sign a consent form. But researchers have found that demanding someone reads and signs consent forms can make them suspicious and even sometimes unwilling to participate Grayson and Myles, The basis upon which someone participates in research is rarely connected with whether or not a study has been approved by an REC.

The opposite of this situation is where researchers are operating in developing countries and collecting data from the poor and underprivileged. The requirement to sign consent forms can be more about litigation protection than concern for the needs and interests of the participant Humphreys, Consent forms can have negative consequences for quantitative researchers too.

Finally, research ethics is also, crucially, about language. Political correctness can be about self-censorship, or not saying what you really think in case it might give offence Loury, In a higher education teaching context this might take the form of thanking students for a contribution to a discussion rather than telling them that you think they are wrong.

It can also be about deliberately adopting language that makes a strategic assessment about the way a sentiment is understood by its audience. This scripting of communication is an extension of the deskilling of fast-food employees Ritzer, to incorporate the professional academic. Writing by academics and students about research ethics strongly illustrates scripted communication.

This can be found in published research papers and student theses and dissertations. This is about inauthentic, scripted communication. It is about a demonstration of emotional performativity. Some researchers may have considerable real concern for ethical issues while others may pay little regard to such matters in practice.

The focus on principalism and approval processes does not get to the heart of this matter. The regulation of research ethics by research ethics committees results in the classic audit paradox Hammersley, Audit processes demonstrate the capacity of academics to play the role of being audited rather than the actual phenomena that are being audited. It has nothing to do with seeking ethical approval. It is what happens next that really matters. We need a way of thinking and writing about research ethics that breaks the dominance of principalism.

While qualitative researchers are particularly in need of such a new approach, I would argue that it is no less relevant to quantitative researchers. The alternative to principalism does not have to be its opposite extreme, that of moral particularism. Virtues are excellences of character such as courage or proper pride. A virtue-based approach to ethics focuses on being rather than doing.

To take courage as an example, this virtue is of central relevance to any researcher, and may be applied or interpreted in a variety of ways Martin and Booth, The chosen method of research may represent a deviation from standard practice in the discipline, or the researcher may be similarly audacious in challenging received wisdom in the form of a dominant disciplinary ideology or paradigm.

The researcher may have decided to tackle an unpopular or taboo subject where the fact that there is little funding or even disapproval from peers must be faced. Such a dilemma most famously confronted Charles Darwin in the much delayed publication of On the Origin of Species. Every virtue is linked to, and comes under pressure from, twin vices which represent the lack or excess of a particular disposition at either extreme.

Courage, for example is linked to the twin vices of cowardice and recklessness. Human emotions play a big part in the research process, as in any other life activity. Emotions such as love, ambition, greed, boredom and laziness can have both positive as well as negative consequences. What is needed, in other words, is a balance, a means which lends itself toward the middle state of courage. This is what a virtue is.

It is tempting to cut corners and compromise original intentions. In practice this is about producing some kind of interpretation, critique, model, theory, design or artefact. Here, the virtue of sincerity is critical in avoiding the twin vices of concealment and exaggeration. Ultimately, research is about the pursuit of truth, and to do anything other than this is to pervert the entire process. Virtues are closely connected with human emotions and personalities. Nobody is perfect, and it is important to recognize that a virtue approach is about realizing the importance of trying to improve through practice.

In other words, one only becomes courageous by doing courageous things. Some virtues are more about action, such as resoluteness, while others are mainly about empathy, sensitivity and self-awareness, such as respectfulness. Human beings, and thus researchers, have different personalities which makes some of us more empathy-oriented than others, for example Cawley et al.

Finally, virtues are subject to different interpretations according to the discipline. A chemist might be frowned on for withholding the results of an experiment, whereas an archaeologist who publishes on the basis of some incomplete analysis of an early civilisation could be accused of being less than circumspect, so potentially misleading academic peers. The pressure to publish is, of course, connected to the vice of boastfulness, something which increasing audit of university research in recent years has only served to exacerbate.

Yet real research ethics is rarely about headline-grabbing incidents of scandal and drama. In practice, we might be tempted to cut the odd corner — say on the extent of data collection, or by excluding an interview transcript that contradicts all the others. This is about making a judgement call where we know that the decision will probably never be exposed. It is about living with oneself rather than worrying about public scandal and exposure. It is about thinking through daily practice and avoiding the little temptations, such as keeping the audio recording going for a few minutes after completing a formal interview in the hope that the interviewee might say something more interesting; promising to send someone a transcript to check and never doing so in the almost sure knowledge that there will be no consequences; referencing to sources that we may have found in the bibliographies of others but never actually read ourselves; or taking more authorial credit than we should do when working with other, perhaps less powerful or experienced, researchers.

Few who have worked as researchers could honestly say that they have never succumbed to any of these types of temptations. It calls for a kind of extraordinary ordinariness, as the examples in Table 3. Table 3. The examples contained in the table just skim the surface of living out a virtue approach to research ethics, a more complete illustration of which may be found in Macfarlane It brings responsibility down to the level of each individual researcher, and demands an authentic rather than formulaic consideration of day-to-day decisions.

Conclusion What does it mean to be ethical? This is partly about appreciating the dialectical interplay between particularism and principalism Hammersley, , but it is also potentially about understanding the way that virtue and vice can cause us to do good and bad things. Wisdom and uncertainty are key themes in this book, and are interlinked in relation to research ethics for qualitative researchers. This is about practical wisdom or what Aristotle termed phronesis. Getting better at handling ethical issues only comes with practice, experience and learning from the good and bad example of others; learning, in the process, whom to respect and whom to ignore.

Wisdom comes with practice and experience, and understanding the need to respond to unpredictable circumstances. Ethics is a bit like jazz. It is about more than simply following the notes on the page. It demands improvisation and an ability to be an interpreter of moods and situations. No two renditions will ever be exactly the same. The rigidity of the ethical approval process and the mantras of principalism offer little assistance in facing this reality.

References Allen, G. Lewes, London: Walter Scott. Cawley, M. Cheng, M. Coggon, D. Darwin, C. Gilligan, C. Grayson, J. Guillemin, M. Hammersley, M. Hubert, J. Hughes, J. Humphreys, S. Jamrozik, K. Kiley, M. LaRossa, R. Lea, J. Loury, G. Macfarlane, B. Martin, E. Pincoffs, E.

Pring, R. Ritzer, G. Tilley, S. Watson, D. Wiles, R. Yu, K. Chapter 4 Relocating truths in the qualitative research paradigm Lana van Niekerk and Maggi Savin-Baden Introduction This chapter explores strategies that might be used in the establishment of truths in qualitative research.

What is Triangulation in Qualitative Research?

The motivation for this article arose from our experiences of managing the complexities of notions of truth and rigour in health research. This chapter argues for the development of strategies that are in keeping with the ontological foundations of work undertaken, the importance of making explicit strategies and stances that are adopted, and recognizing the complex interactions of the sociopolitical agenda at play in the research.

The arguments we present here might be seen to violate many postmodern guidelines for inquiry, which are in themselves insubstantial in terms of potential for application, particularly those aligned with sceptical postmodernism and all with extreme orientations. We suggest a late modern stance would be more appropriate and helpful since it is a position that embraces some of the ideas from the postmodern camp but offers realistic implementation possibilities.

Thus we argue here that truths in qualitative research are spaces of mediation, and that our biographies, positions and practices affect how we see and practice truths in qualitative research. Truths as spaces of mediation The limitation of truth as a concept is that there is often a perceived and expected moral value which is, in the main, located within the stance of the individual.

To shift from truth to truths moves beyond positivism to interpretivism. Such a position is where we acknowledge that truths are complex and fragile, and need to be seen as places where issues of power, consent and negotiation are mediated by our own values and biographies. Criteria and strategies regularly used within a postpositivist orientation have been problematized by those adopting a Relocating truths in the qualitative research paradigm 29 postmodern or poststructuralist reading, which rejects both the ontological premise for trustworthiness criteria and the purpose for attempting to establish these.

No attempt is made to propose that a stable reality exists around which lasting theories can be developed, hence nullifying attempts to repeat research actions with an expectation that the same results could be obtained. Mays and Pope propose that all research is selective and that the researcher cannot capture the literal truth of events in any sense. They believe it depends on collecting particular sorts of evidence through the prism of particular methods, each of which has its strengths and weaknesses.

Postmodernists believe that validity or authority is determined by the critical understandings produced; in other words, the only expectation should be that situated understandings are produced. Furthermore, most research available for reading had been generated in developed countries of the world and with samples that often resemble a small minority in developing countries.

The traditional rural environment in which I grew up provided a sheltered childhood in a closeknit community that was strongly shaped by paternalistic principles which were used to justify apartheid policies and practices. My personal journey to understand the impact of power and privilege as social determinants is ongoing, and has been guided by close working relationships with especially black colleagues. My professional journey led me to become interested in discrimination experienced by people with psychiatric disability, and to recognize how ineffective current services were in promoting equitable participation in work.

For example, very little research explores why persons with psychiatric disability have remained on the margins of society and, in fact, the disability movement. Maggi: Although I grew up in a white middle-class family in the north of England I was always aware of what I was not; not working-class, not from Pakistan and not underprivileged.

This awareness was enshrined in our family values largely by my father, who had grown up in a working-class family and as a head teacher in a primary school, which unusually had 80 per cent Pakistani children attending, sought to do all he could to try to improve their lives. After school I moved miles to London to attend college and then to work. The notion of difference always fascinated.

Visiting South Africa over a number of years has taught me much, not least that my values about what counted as privilege and oppression were distorted by the cultures and spaces in which I grew up. These strategies were chosen because they were easy to understand, provided structured guidelines and seemed useful. However, their limited application value became clear, and will be illustrated with the use of an example. Data construction involved the use of narrative interviews and observation.

Research within this group required recognition of sociopolitical factors and attention to situated experiences. Location of truths became a prominent consideration in the study to counteract generalized societal assumptions about persons with psychiatric disability, some of which had been internalized by participants in the study. Our researcher stances initially moved toward postmodernism although we believed there might also be shortcomings with it as both a methodology and method.

They are either open to positive political action or content with recognizing visionary, celebratory, personal nondogmatic projects across a broad spectrum of social movements; importantly, their intellec- Relocating truths in the qualitative research paradigm 31 tual practice remains non-dogmatic, tentative and non-ideological The issue of representation also seems to be one of the most contentious areas of disagreement between qualitative researchers who hold different perspectives. This for us was unsurprising, since to debate the issue of representation would usually draw into question the very processes with which the voices of participants are believed to be captured and presented.

New strategies and different stances The combined impact of literature reviewed and our attempt to apply theoretical constructs in practice has led to the development of strategies which we believe will guide all researchers doing health research. These strategies are proposed with an acceptance that no claims can be made of a truth that will remain stable. It seemed unacceptable to us to talk about collaborative inquiry when there is no evidence of collaboration; to advocate client-centred practice but leave the client voiceless in the reporting of the study; and to lay claim to an interpretive study but show no evidence of interpretation or, if this is done, not share those interpretations with participants for further discussion on this see Savin-Baden and Fisher, We would argue that professional discourse transcends the worlds of research and professional practice.

What we mean here is that debates about ethics, conduct and accountability can be distinguished by differences of theory and practical action, but they can never actually be isolated from one another. To accept current perspectives seemed to us to lay claim, through such practices as member checking, to a validity that is often seen as relatively unproblematic.

Instead we suggest that honesties should be an instantiation of a new stance. Yet there is a sense that the process of negotiating honesties involves constantly moving in and out of a hermeneutic circle. Hermeneutics propose solutions to the apparently unsolvable contradiction of the so-called hermeneutic circle that parts can only be understood from the whole, and the whole only from the parts. Attention is initially focused on some part, insights gained are then tentatively related to the whole upon which new insights are gained; focus is again returned to the part studied Alvesson and Skoldberg, The circle of objective hermeneutics considers the relationship between the part and the whole as explained above.

What this seems to point to is liminality. The state of liminality tends to be characterized by a stripping-away of old identities, an oscillation between states and personal transformation. Liminal spaces are thus suspended states, and serve as transformative in function, as someone moves from one state or position to another. The idea of a liminal state is taken from ethnographic studies into rituals, for example rites of passage, such as the initiation of adolescent Xhosa boys into manhood.

We suggest the ability to engage and work with notions of honesties is often a space of liminality. There is a sense in much of the literature see for example Malesevic, that liminal spaces are ones in which an individual stays for a time, and then emerges into a new place or position. Yet research texts that address liminality or forms of disjunction and stuck-ness have rather underplayed its complexity, as both a concept and as a position.

Instead we would suggest that in some areas of our lives we tend to remain in liminal spaces for months, possibly years, before the dilemmas and concerns are resolved. Furthermore, there is also a sense in which it is possible to remain in a liminal space alongside normal life, thus it is as if liminality is occurring at a metalevel where ideas and concepts are merging, and at the same time everyday living occurs on a parallel track.

For example, the tendency, when biographies are written, is that the production will start in family history Denzin, This became for us not only a space of interruption, but also a liminal space. Verisimilitude Denzin proposed deconstructive verisimilitude as a strategy that might be used to provide legitimate answers to the research questions. Here we use data to develop the argument posited by Denzin. Other Relocating truths in the qualitative research paradigm 33 social contexts were made uncomfortable by the fact that Nicolas, unlike his friends, did not use alcohol.

Second interview: Conversation takes place during which Nicolas is considering the motivations his friends might have had for their rejection of him. He left the interview without mentioning his intention to discuss the matter with his friends, but returned to the third interview weeks later to report that he had been reinstated in the A team, and that he was happy to be involved with the club and his friends again. His initial explanation of events was informed by his own anticipation of stigma. However, by the time of the third interview the situation was different for all concerned, and ideas around stigma were being reconstructed, based on different sets of experiences.

Questions that had come to mind since the interview were discussed with the participant; often such questions highlighted what looked to be contradictions. Instead, discussion was re-entered and participants would further elaborate or clarify their responses. This approach was used successfully with Jessica, a beauty therapist. However, she emphasized that she was, in fact, a very good worker and that she would be welcomed back at any of her previous places of work. In the process of data construction, serious attention was given to explore multiple truths at every step of the process, without an expectation that there would be a single or stable answer to complex questions.

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New Approaches to Qualitative Research - Wisdom and Uncertainty (Electronic book text)

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Further Readings

Studies in Art Education, 59 1 , Mitchell, W. Reflections on the well-being and ethical requirements of researchers and research participants in conducting qualitative fieldwork interviews. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 7 4 , Myers, K. Math is in the title: Un learning the subject in qualitative and post qualitative inquiry. International Review of Qualitative Research, 10 3 , Nicolini, D.

Zooming in and zooming out: A package of method and theory to study work practices. Ybema, D. Yanow, H. Wels, and F. Kamsteeg Eds. Palmer, P. The heart of higher education. Payne, J. Task complexity and contingent processing in decision making: An information search and protocol analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, Pelias, R.

Reading and writing research located in the literary. Kagan, R. Nisbett, D. Shulman Eds. Reynolds, W. Curriculum and place. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education, pp.

New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty
New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty
New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty
New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty
New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty
New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty
New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty

Related New Approaches to Qualitative Research: Wisdom and Uncertainty

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