Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®


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But on July 9, , South Sudan became an independent nation. As Sudan once again finds itself the focus of international attention, former special envoy to Sudan and director of USAID Andrew Natsios provides a timely introduction to the country at this pivotal moment in its history.


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Focusing on the events of the last 25 years, Natsios sheds light on the origins of the conflict between northern and southern Sudan and the complicated politics of this volatile nation. Issues of citizenship, security, oil management, and wealth-sharing all remain unresolved.

Andrew Natsios

Human rights issues, particularly surrounding the ongoing violence in Darfur, likewise still clamor for solutions. Informative and accessible, this book introduces readers to the most central issues facing Sudan as it stands on the brink of historic change. If poorly managed, it could adversely affect the oil industry on which the whole economy depends.

This has made it less effective than it might otherwise be. UNMISS still has great potential to avert major assaults against the civilian population through regular patrols that are able to monitor developing situations from the ground and air. There are also numerous actors involved in peace-building between Sudan and South Sudan, ranging from China and IGAD, which are currently playing less active roles than the AU and UN and could step up their involvement in mediation.

These tend to be armed civilians, usually comprising youth. By , one million people had been displaced following the December civil war, and the number of dead had reached 10, Over the course of the coming years, South Sudan and its international donors will face the complex task of building state structures, systems, institutions and capacity designed to stabilise a precarious security situation and a weak economy. Human capital is mostly tied up in the military to which the South Sudan government pays a salary as a way to avoid ethnic tensions.

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This has resulted in the unfortunate situation of inadvertently creating a new class based society. The development of human capital is compounded by a lack of physical infrastructure and poverty. More than half of the 8 million population of South Sudan live below the poverty line.

Oil accounted for 60 per cent of GDP in , whilst subsistence agriculture, forestry and fisheries accounted for South Sudan experiences volatile price changes, it has no buffer no stabilisation fund , and an almost total dependence on Khartoum for oil payments. Seventy per cent of the national budget is spent on army pay, pensions and hardware, which reflects the insecurities felt from Sudan prior to, during, and after secession and ongoing difficulties in implementing meaningful DDR.

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The GOSS Growth Strategy identifies the highest priority constraints on which the government should focus — insecurity, poor infrastructure and multiple taxation. Such a strategy could also relieve some of the pressure on aid organisations such as DFID which find that insecurity, poor infrastructure, low capacity, and a lack of competition adds to the cost of operations which in turn affects their efficiency, scope and reach.

South Sudan needs to diversify quickly in order to secure its GDP, and agriculture holds many opportunities by increasing employment and contributing to food security. Agriculture could be part of a broad based diversification approach which includes growth of the manufacturing, tourism, hydro-electric power and mining industries.

Without employment from these industries and a productive tax base, streams of rent and an ability to borrow, state building becomes impossible. Development of the agricultural sector should be accompanied by legislation which explicitly guarantees nomadic and minority rights such as grazing rights and will reduce conflict and the illegal sale of land. The South Sudan Land Act allows for such claims through recognition of customary land rights under customary land law, increasing seasonal access, in addition to freehold and leasehold ownership.

This will be administered through a land classification system that includes public land, community land based on ethnicity, residence or interest and private land. Infrastructure projects could not only add much needed employment but rapidly improve the life chances for all groups. Labour intensive works such as this should be funded now by donors and oil revenue with a view to facilitating intra-regional trade and export options for South Sudan.

Access to international markets remains a primary concern since facilitating it will allow the new state to increase monetary exchange and taxes , attract much needed FDI for public works projects, increase urbanisation and mobilise resources for state-building and development.

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Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know

Realistically, this process, which is exacerbated by low population density, could take decades to achieve. In , a UN development expert estimated that Juba had a one 7 mile stretch of good bitumen road. By , it was estimated that there was only 11 miles of tarmac road in Juba with a population of 1. The extent to which development must also be prioritised in the rural regions was highlighted by the people who died in local tribal conflicts in partly due to food shortages. Agriculture currently represents on only per cent of potential farm land, and water resources, fish stocks, oil, gold and other mineral deposits all remain largely untapped.

In , it was estimated that around 2 million firearms were in circulation amongst the civilian population of South Sudan. However, the role of civilian militias grew in line with increasing frustration with the government and SPLA.

Books for Understanding: Sudan

Indeed, some elements of the SPLA joined the militias, facilitated by tribal loyalties, which added to their strength. These groups are engaged in banditry, animal rustling and other criminal activities.


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  8. However, disarming such groups has been met with resistance notably in the civilian disarmament initiative of due to community-level and cross border security dynamics. Like some parts of the U. The EU tackles cross border instability through the Instrument for Stability which, during , includes:.


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    Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®
    Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®
    Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®
    Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®
    Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®
    Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®
    Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know® Sudan, South Sudan, and Darfur: What Everyone Needs to Know®

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