This paper will examine the opportunity that this presents for continental European countries to enhance defense cooperation with the US within the NATO framework, especially following Russian interventionism in Eastern Europe. The Lisbon Treaty defined foreign affairs and defense as intergovernmental policy areas, thus EU external relations have been limited to a soft security role. The current context of international instability indicates that this may no longer be sufficient, encouraging several EU officials to argue for greater permanent structured cooperation.
Brexit has made this possible, since the UK had previously vetoed any such attempts. Even though extensive negotiations will be necessary concerning the implications for NATO, where the US enjoys a dominant position, greater EU defense cooperation represents an opportunity to strengthen NATO and the Western alliance as a whole.
De Gaulle withdrew French forces stage by stage from to in order to enhance France's independence, believing that the integrated military structure was dominated by the United States. Taken from Langworth R. See: Bozo F. The fact that the Socialist French President has not succeeded in mitigating the impact of austerity highlights France's declining influence in the EU, as this was one of Hollande's main electoral promises, particularly the re-negotiation of the fiscal compact. The French President must inform Parliament within three days of a military intervention, which may lead to a debate but no vote.
The Parliament only votes if the intervention lasts for more than four months, in which case it must agree to any prolongation. Foreign Policy 2nd edition , Oxford University Press Available versions. Whoever hoped that the latest parliamentary elections in Iran could again lead the people to mobilize as in and result in a change of power relations now find themselves disappointed. With the country now practically consumed with the beginning of Iranian New Year celebrations, the regime has survived another critical phase. Nevertheless, international sanctions are being tightened, war rhetoric is increasing, and the economic crisis is getting worse.
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Croatia will become the 28th EU member state in , making it not only the first Western Balkan country to join the EU, but also the last new member for the next few years. At a time when Brussels is adopting stricter accession rules, will the EU be able to maintain its powerful appeal in the Western Balkans? Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko is deftly using the differences between Russia and the EU in the common neighborhood to preserve his regime.
It constantly switches between confrontation and cooperation when dealing with both sides, thereby strengthening its sovereignty. In lieu of bilateral projects, the EU and Russia should emphasize multilateral cooperation and should especially promote the strengthening of regional institutions. There is no way out of the debt crisis without Germany. But for many partners in the European Union, Berlin is part of the problem.
The revolt against the regime has ushered in a new chapter in the history of the Islamic Republic. A triple crisis is plaguing the Islamic Republic, covering socioeconomic, political, and environmental dimensions — all of which have acted as interrelated drivers for continuous protests since the revolt.
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The lack of socioeconomic mobility is a product of a political economy favoring regime members and loyalists. The economic situation is further exacerbated by the absence of much needed structural reforms. Although U. As can be witnessed from various protest slogans, hardline and moderate factions, as well as the clerical establishment many of whom are reformists , all have been the target of popular rage.
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According to Iranian and U. The environmental disaster, including water scarcity, is arguably a national security threat. It has already started to threaten the livelihood of tens of millions of Iranians.
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Importantly, this triple crisis is set to continue, as its underlying causes are likely to remain unaltered or worsen. This new era in the history of the Islamic Republic of Iran is marked by turmoil and potential instability.
Protests with anti-regime slogans continue, blaming the deteriorating political and economic situation on the regime rather than on U. More of the same is unlikely to avoid chaos and instability. As an indispensable starting point, Europe must first establish a unified Iran policy that is binding to all member states to avoid opportunistic behavior by single countries.
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Also, it is essential to find a common ground among slightly differing European positions. Despite alienation from the Trump administration, Europe needs to pursue steps toward finding a transatlantic common ground on Iran. Also, it must continue to seek exemptions from U.follow url
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The EU should utilize its amassed weight in Tehran toward extracting gradual change in its domestic and regional behavior, while highlighting the benefits of such changes to Iran. Cognizant of the comparative advantages it has in Tehran, the EU should not shy away from introducing conditions for cooperation. Taking a steadfast approach, the EU will present an important driver for Tehran to start changing its behavior.
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While maintaining dialogue with Iran on regional security, Europe should adopt a dual strategy: 1 guarding Iran against the demonization of its role and 2 asking Iran for constraints in that role. Europe should differentiate between what Iran views as a deterrence strategy against what many of its neighbors regard as hegemonic ambitions. Europe should not re-create the impression it gave during the revolt, that it favors the regime over society.
The EU should avoid alienating large sections of Iranian society, thereby ensuring its long-term reputation and interests in the country. With the prospect of deteriorating domestic conditions in Iran, Europe needs to be prepared for how to react if events in Iran escalate. Failing to do so will make it easier for the regime to engage in suppression and increase the prospect of a bloodbath. Initiate an overdue paradigm shift: Harmonizing foreign and development policies for the sake of sustainable stability. The EU must now prepare the conceptual grounds for a paradigm shift in its foreign policy.
It must support good governance and inclusive economic growth. To devise the actual policies for this paradigm shift, the EU needs to establish an independent expert committee that is not confined by political and bureaucratic constraints and considerations. Engage Washington: A transatlantic Iran policy should not be buried because concerns over Iranian policy are likely to outlive the Trump Administration. Introduction U. Footnotes Donald J.
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